When a tooth is damaged irreversibly, then the tissue at the center of the tooth, called the pulp, dies. This can lead to pain and then this can develop into infection. The treatment for this is called Root Canal Treatment. The remnants of the damaged tissue are removed and the canal system cleaned, after which it is sealed and then restored as normal.
These are used to restore any holes in a tooth, there are two types of general material available, tooth-colored or metal-colored filings. The tooth-colored fillings are used in area of the mouth where appearance is important, as these match the shade of the teeth. The metal-colored fillings are used mainly in the areas where there is more load on the teeth, such as chewing surfaces. Although these are recommended in these areas, modern tooth-colored materials can be used here as well, as they are the equivalent strength.
These are used to cover teeth where the teeth are heavily restored and need protection, also for the improvement of appearance. These consist of different materials, metal materials for protection, porcelain for the improvement of appearance and metal-porcelain which combines the best of both worlds. The tooth is normally prepared before the crown is fitted, this normally involved drilling the tooth to reduce it somewhat.
This treatment is used done using a bleaching chemical called hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide. These can be used to lighten teeth, either in the surgery or using bleaching trays at home. Both methods can also be used together as well and offer a greater range of control of the shade of the teeth.
These are prosthesis which are used to replace the gaps in the mouth, these are used for the function of chewing and also used for appearance as well. These are available in two different materials, either metal or plastic, and can be full, which is all the teeth in the mouth are on the denture, or partial, which is where a few of the teeth are placed on the denture.
These are cast restorations which are used when there are particularly large holes in teeth, where a normal filling material is not strong enough. Normally, the materials they are made of are alloys, composites or porcelain, which are treated and cast so as to provide sufficient strength to protect the tooth.
These are like part crown for one side of the teeth in the mouth, these are primarily used for aesthetics in the mouth, in situations where this may be less than optimal. These are normally made of a porcelain or composite material, which provides the relevant improvement in look of the mouth. These are generally speaking less destructive than crowns in the mouth.